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Autor Téma: The Raw and the Stolen. Cooking and the Ecology of Human Origins.  (Přečteno 2416 krát)
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« kdy: 15. Leden, 2010, 16:25:18 »

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=8&ved=0CC0QFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fgregladen.com%2Fwordpress%2Fwp-content%2Fpdf%2FWranghamEtAl.pdf&rct=j&q=The+Raw+and+the+Stolen+wrangham&ei=cYdQS4HpMYjkmwPPxMihCg&usg=AFQjCNE4ZRR9t39fIJ70kcGlDyy6ihzwIw&sig2=WeocBCUBAFAdijHWy60VSg

Docela hustej text, ale stojí za přečtení
Vybral jsem pár úržků

(1) raw plant foods were the predominant fraction of early hominiddiets and underground storage organs were particularly important; (2) plant foods remained critical to early human diets; (3) cooking of plant foods would have caused a substantial increase in digestibility and increased the range of plants that would have been edible for hominids sufficiently to leave a recognizable signal in the fossil record and perhaps the archaeological record; (4) increased meat eating (alone, i.e., without cooking) by Homo would have had smaller effects on nutrition than the adoption of cooking; (5) the best interpretation of the current evidence is that fire was controlled at the origin of H. erectus.  
Australopithecines likely derivedmost of their food from  plants. Several lines of evidence support this assertion.  First, most modern human tropical and subtropical foragers  eat mainly plant foods (despite a widepsread cultural  fixation on hunting of game),

Cooking makes food more available and digestible by (1)  cracking open or otherwise destroying physical barriers  such as thick skins or husks, (2) bursting cells, thereby  making cell contents more easily available for digestion  or absorption, (3)modifying the three-dimensional structure  of molecules such as proteins and starches into  forms more accessible for digestion by enzymatic degradation,  (4) reducing the chemical structure of indigestible  molecules into smaller forms that can be fermented  more rapidly and completely, and (5) denaturing  toxins or digestion-reducing compounds (Stahl 1984). In  its own way each of these mechanisms makes foodmore  available, either rendering it palatable or increasing its  digestibility (defined as the proportion of dry-matter intake  not present in the feces).  
In our survey of underground storage organs  eaten by African foragers, 21 (43.8%) of the 48 edible  species identified required cooking to become palatable.  This suggests that cooking can substantially broaden the  range of edible species. Furthermore, underground storage  organs are frequently considered to be improved by  roasting (e.g., Silberbauer 1981).  
In view of its substantial effect on the availability and  digestibility of critical food items, we can expect the  adoption of cooking to have been rapid. Increased digestibility  of ingested food is expected to have left a variety  of signals directly or indirectly in the fossil record,  

We suggest that the presumed increase of  meat consumption in later hominids was a dietary adaptation  related to cooking plant material. Specifically,  the increased energy availability allowed by cooking  plant materials played a permissive role in the intensi-  fication of hunting—a high-risk, high-gain activity  —much the way periods of fruit abundance seem to  allow intensification of chimpanzee hunting (Wrangham  and Bergmann-Riss 1990, Stanford 1996).  


Our proposal is that females formed bonds with males  to protect themselves from food thieves, with the result  that to a large extent females provisionedmales. Pressure  on females to form effective bonds then selected for extended  and intensified female sexual attractiveness.  

Why do women gather? They are  forced to do so because theywon’t acquire food otherwise  and access to resources is critical for their reproductive  success. Why don’t men gather (much)? They don’t need  to because they can scrounge plant foods from women.  Why do men hunt? They can afford a high-risk, highgain  activity because they are supported by women’s foraging  and food preparation effort.  

cooking was  more strongly associated with gender than any other variable  considered in Whyte’s (1978) cross-cultural survey  of the status of women.  

fire and its exchange could have had  other important social ramifications. A striking feature  of individuals’ giving each other fire is that the high  benefits conferred by receiving fire come at a trivial cost  to the donor. This cost/benefit asymmetry suggests that  in communities dependent on fire therewould have been  selection for readiness to reciprocate: an interesting  question is whether this readiness would have been generalized  to other contexts.  
« Poslední změna: 15. Leden, 2010, 16:43:39 od michal » Zaznamenáno
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« Odpověď #1 kdy: 15. Leden, 2010, 17:38:34 »

Dik Michale Wink

Our proposal is that females formed bonds with males  to protect themselves from food thieves

Tohle se mi libi.. ktera byste chtela uzavrit bond, tak jsem k sluzbam.. jidlo chranim skvele, ponevadz ho vsechno snim Grin
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« Odpověď #2 kdy: 17. Leden, 2010, 14:21:46 »

Jak tak pročítám i ty komentáře - příjde mi zvláštní, že se ti antropologové nedokážou shodnout ani na tom, kdy "lidi" začali používat oheň.
Spekuluje se tam o tom, jestli to bylo před 2,5mil.; 1,5mil. nebo 200 tisíci lety.

Tak nevim, jestli vůbec má smysl se tím zabývat. Mysell jsem si, že antropologie je docela seriózní věda ale takhle...
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« Odpověď #3 kdy: 17. Leden, 2010, 14:36:43 »

Taky jsem nad tim podobne uvazoval, kdyz jsem cetl jakou metodou se odhaduje stari vykopavek, ruznych nalezu a je spousta teorii, jak ta metoda pro odhadovani stari je uplne mimo.
Nevime s jistotou absolutne nic.. ani s malou jistotou Smiley
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« Odpověď #4 kdy: 17. Leden, 2010, 14:39:09 »

Mozna prave proto me stale vice stve, s jakou jistotou pise svoje filosoficke teze (zduraznuju filosoficke, nebavim se o jidle) Kushi a Ohsawa.
Opet pripominam Kushiho spis o mimozemstanech, kde ukoluje sve zaky, aby si z hlediska jin/jang jeho teorie overili a ze jim to musi byt vsechno jasne Smiley
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